A hip score is a measure of evidence of hip dysplasia (abnormal development). Scores for each
hip are added together to get an overall hip score for a dog. Scores range from 0 to 106, with
the lower the score the better. The advice to breeders is to ideally breed only from dogs which
score below the breed average.
More information on the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia scheme
An elbow grade is a measure of any evidence of elbow dysplasia (abnormal development).
Both elbows are graded (between 0-3), but only the highest grade is used as an overall
elbow grade for the dog. The lower the grade the better, with the advice given to breeders
to ideally breed from dogs which have an elbow grade of 0 or 1.
More information on the BVA/KC Elbow Dysplasia scheme
There is a set list of breeds and eye conditions, known to be inherited in those breeds and
that are certified under the Eye Scheme. A dog is certified as unaffected or affected for each
condition known to be inherited in the breed.
Key to eye conditions
|CEA||Collie eye anomaly|
|CHC||Congenital hereditary cataract|
|PHPV||Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous|
|PLL||Primary lens luxation|
|PPM||Persistent pupillary membrane|
|CPRA||Centralised progressive retinal atrophy|
|GPRA||Generalised progressive retinal atrophy|
|MRD||Multifocal retinal dysplasia|
|TRD||Total retinal dysplasia|
In general, it is recommended that eyes are examined annually (except for glaucoma predisposition which
is only done once), with the advice given to breeders to only breed from dogs that are found to be unaffected
(or clear) of all known conditions in the breed.
More information on the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye scheme
There are DNA tests available for specific conditions in some breeds. A result or status will show
only if the dog has been DNA tested or is hereditarily clear of the condition for which there is a DNA test.
DNA tests can show whether an individual dog is genetically clear (no copies of the disease gene),
a carrier (one copy of the disease gene) or affected (two copies of the disease gene) for a particular
condition or disease. This is very useful information for breeders, and breeding advice will vary according
to the disease/condition in question.
Key to DNA tests
|GPRA-rcd1||Generalised progressive retinal atrophy - rcd1|
|GPRA-rcd3||Generalised progressive retinal atrophy - rcd3|
|CLAD||Canine leucocyte adhesion deficiency|
|vWD||Von Willebrand Disease|
|CSNB||Congenital stationary night blindness|
|GPRA cord-1||Generalised progressive retinal atrophy - cord-1|
|HC-1||Hereditary cataract - 1|
|JHC||Juvenile hereditary cataract|
|prcd-PRA||Progressive rod cone degeneration - Progressive retinal atrophy|
|PDP-1||Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate 1 deficiency|
|TNS||Trapped neutrophil syndrome|
|CEA/CH||Collie eye anomaly / Choroidal hypoplasia|
More information on DNA screening schemes and a list of DNA tests